5,000 years ago, the first Pharaoh, King Narmer, founded the world's first nation state, recording it in the world's first written script. The pharaohs were not just kings or queens, they were gods and they were worshipped as divine rulers. But they also commanded vast administrative armies, models of modern management and efficiency.
It was their sophisticated system of bureaucracy that enabled the construction of Egypt's greatest monuments, the pyramids of course and also the tombs in the Valley of the Kings, the great temples of Karnak, the ruins of Thebes not forgetting the Sphinx at Giza.
The relics of Ancient Egypt still survive to bear witness to the refinement and beauty of many golden ages.
Although the construction of the pyramids was only an episode in the long history of the pharaohs, this period has left us some of the most impressive monuments that can be seen. Besides the three giants of Gizeh, more than 70 pyramids can be counted along the Nile.
Most of the Egyptian monuments are from the pharaohic era, but are also complemented by expressions of other cultures. Colossi and Sphinxes exist alongside
Life in Ancient Egypt revolved around religion. The pharaohs traced their ancestry back to the gods of the Egyptian pantheon.