5 June 1594, Dutch cartographer Willem Barentsz departed from Texel in a fleet of three ships to enter the Kara Sea, with the hopes of findi...
Introduction and Cautions Any attempt to assess the distribution of volcanism through time must take into account the variable definitions...
General Characteristics Taxonomy is the science of classification of organisms. Primates are difficult to classify. Most scientists classif...
Lawang Sewu - Entering a Thousand Doors
Entering Lawang Sewu through the main door, you are struck by the sight of an elegant stained-glass window at the top of the stairs. The window is both artistic and full of symbolism. Its most prominent feature is two young Dutch girls, with an image of a wheel between them. Suranto (64), the caretaker of this Dutch colonial building, explains the imagery. "Each square in this window represents something. The crown in the upper center is a symbol of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east
Cars, ships and buildings were swept away by a wall of water after the 8.9-magnitude tremor, which struck about 400km (250 miles) north-east of Tokyo.
A state of emergency has been declared at a nuclear power plant, where pressure has exceeded normal levels.
Officials say 350 people are dead and about 500 missing, but it is feared the final death toll will be much higher.
In one ward alone in Sendai, a port city in Miyagi prefecture, 200 to 300 bodies were found.
History of Deadly Earthquakes
The world's strongest recorded earthquake devastates Chile, with a reading of 9.5 on the Richter scale. A tsunami 30ft (10m) high eliminates entire villages in Chile and kills 61 hundreds of miles away in Hawaii.
1 September 1923
The Great Kanto earthquake, with its epicentre just outside Tokyo, claims the lives of 142,800 people in the Japanese capital.
18 April 1906
In deep water, the tsunami moves at great speeds. When it reaches shallow water near coastal areas, the tsunami slows but increases in height.
In the devastating tsunami of December 2004, many coastal areas in the Indian Ocean had almost no warning of the approaching tsunami.
In the Atlantic and eastern Pacific they are called hurricanes, but in the western Pacific they are called typhoons.
In the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean they are known as cyclones.
The very warm air from the storm combines with the moist ocean surface and begin rising. This creates low pressure at the surface.
As the ground temperature increases, moist air heats and starts to rise.
When the warm, moist air meets cold dry air, it explodes upwards, puncturing the cooler air above. A thunder cloud may begin to build.
A storm quickly develops and there may be rain, thunder and lightning.
The Arctic’s climate has been changing. Spring thaws are earlier. Fall freeze-ups are later. Sea ice is shrinking. Unfamiliar species of plants and animals are appearing. Intense storms are more frequent.
The Arctic is the Earth’s northernmost region. Mostly comprised of ocean, the Arctic can be defined in many ways. Among them:
An imaginary line around the Earth at 66° 33’ N above which the sun does not completely set on the summer solstice.